A retrospective review was carried out on 23 patients with rigid fixed kyphosis who underwent surgical correction for their deformity. To report the results of surgical correction of fixed kyphosis according to the surgical approaches or methods. Surgical correction of fixed kyphosis is more dangerous than the correction of any other spinal deformity because of the high incidence of paraplegia. There were 12 cases of acute angular kyphosis 6 congenital, 6 healed tuberculosis and 11 cases of round kyphosis 10 ankylosing spondylitis, 1 Scheuermann's kyphosis.
Patients were excluded if their kyphosis was due to active tuberculosis, fractures, or degenerative lumbar changes. Operative procedures consisted of anterior, posterior and combined approaches with or without total vertebrectomy. Anterior procedure only was performed in 2 cases, while posterior procedure only was performed in 8 cases. Combined procedures were used in 13 cases, including 4 total vertebrectomies.
The average kyphotic angle was The clinical results according to the Kirkaldy-Willis scale demonstrated 17 excellent outcomes, 5 good outcomes and one poor outcome. Our data indicates that the combined approach and especially the total vertebrectomy showed the safety and the greatest correction rate if acute angular kyphosis was greater than 60 degrees.
Many pathologic conditions can cause kyphotic deformities. However, acute angular kyphosis indicates a severe kyphosis that causes sagittal imbalance and results in progressive neurological alteration. Our data excludes kyphosis due to fracture, active tuberculosis, or degenerative lumbar disease. Fixed kyphosis consists of two distinct types according to morphology, acute angular kyphosis and round kyphosis.
Congenital kyphosis and kyphosis as a sequela of healed tuberculosis show an acute angular morphology. However, Scheuermann's disease and ankylosing spondylitis result in round kyphosis. The purpose of surgical correction of fixed kyphosis is to correct the deformity as well as to prevent or alleviate paraplegia in severe acute angular kyphosis.
The operation also improves respiratory and digestive function by relieving compressive effects of the deformity on the abdomen. However, the correction of this deformity is more dangerous than the correction of any other spinal deformity because of the high incidence of paraplegia. In considering the surgical correction of kyphosis, physicians must decide which approach is the best for that particular patient at that particular time.
The purpose of this article is to report our results for the surgical correction of fixed kyphosis according to the surgical approaches or methods. A retrospective review was carried out on 23 patients with rigid fixed kyphosis, with or without neurological compromise, who underwent surgical correction of their deformity from April to September The average length of follow-up was 4.
There were 17 pure kyphosis cases and 6 cases of kyphosis combined with scoliosis. Our data excludes kyphosis due to active tuberculosis, fractures, or degenerative lumbar changes Table 1. The correction of deformities was measured using Cobb's method, which determines the angle between the upper and lower end vertebrae.
If the upper end vertebra existed beyond the 3rd thoracic vertebra, we indicated the 3rd thoracic vertebrae as the upper end vertebrae. The clinical results were evaluated using the Kirkaldy-Willis scale. The kyphotic angles were analyzed as follows. The change between postoperative and preoperative angles was divided by the preoperative angle, and the resultant was designated as the correction rate.
The change between the final follow-up correction rate and the postoperative correction rate was designated as the correction loss rate. Operative procedures consisted of anterior only, posterior only, and a combined approach with or without total vertebrectomy, according to the characteristics of the patients' pathologies. Anterior procedure only was performed in 2 cases if acute angular kyphosis was 55 degrees or less without neurological loss.
Posterior procedure only was performed in 8 cases of round kyphosis corrected by pedicle subtraction osteotomy. Combined procedures in acute angular kyphosis were performed in 10 cases, including 4 total vertebrectomies to correct the severe deformity. And combined procedures in round kyphosis were performed in 3 cases if round kyphosis was greater than 80 degrees.
The clinical results accorging to the Kirkaldy-Willis scale demonstrated 17 excellent outcomes, 5 good outcomes, and one poor outcome. Five cases demonstrated preoperative neurological deficits, but all five experienced a complete improvement in neurological status after correction of their kyphosis.The spine has a series of normal curves when viewed from the side.
These curves help to better absorb the loads applied to the spine from the weight of the body. The spine is normally straight when looking from the front. An abnormal curve when viewed from the front is called scoliosis. Scoliosis can occur from design at birth or from rotation or an abnormal twisting of the vertebrae as from pain. The normal curves of the spine allow the head to be balanced directly over the pelvis. If one or more of these curves is either too great or too small, the head may not be properly balanced over the pelvis.
This can lead to back pain, stiffness, and an altered gait or walking pattern. Most often, these symptoms remain fairly constant and do not become progressively worse with time. In more severe situations, the patient may notice their symptoms worsening with time. The kyphosis can progress, causing a more exaggerated hunchback. In rare cases, this can lead to compression of the spinal cord with neurologic symptoms including weakness, loss of sensation, or loss of bowel and bladder control.
Severe cases of thoracic kyphosis can also limit the amount of space in the chest and cause cardiac and pulmonary problems leading to chest pain and shortness of breath. The physician makes the diagnosis of kyphosis with a complete medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. The physician also will ask about developmental milestones since some types of kyphosis can be associated with other neuromuscular disorders. Developmental delays may require further medical evaluation.
Postural kyphosis can usually be treated with physical therapy to help strengthen the muscles of your back and correct your posture. Mild pain relievers and antiinflammatory medications can also help with symptoms. These curves do not continue to worsen with time or lead to more serious complications.
Surgery is not needed for postural kyphosis. If the patient is still growing, a brace can be effective. Braces are often recommended for curves of at least 45 degrees and can be continued until the patient is no longer growing. Your physician will likely obtain routine X-rays to monitor the degree of kyphosis over time. Bracing is not typically recommended for adults who are no longer growing. The goals of surgery are to partially correct the deformity of the kyphosis, relieve pain, and improve your overall spinal alignment.
Indications for surgery include a curve greater than 75 degrees, uncontrolled pain, and neurologic, cardiac, or pulmonary complaints.For more information, medical assessment and medical quote send your detailed medical history and medical reports as email attachment to Email : - info wecareindia. To 8 pm. IST Only for international patients seeking treatment in India.
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Patient Services. Contact Us. Post an Enquiry Preferred. Only in India Hospital Tour. Spine Surgery. Spine Conditions. Back Pain. Herniated Disc. Neck Pain. Spinal Stenosis. Spinal Tumors.
Spina Bifida. Spinal Cord Injury. Other Spine Conditions. Spine Procedures. Cost Guide. Spine Hospitals. Spine Doctors In India. However, a spine affected by kyphosis shows evidence of a forward curvature of the back bones vertebrae in the upper back area, giving the child a "humpback" appearance. The Scoliosis Research Society defines kyphosis as a curvature of the spine measuring 45 degrees or greater on an x-ray a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
The normal spine has only 20 to 45 degrees of curvature in the upper back area. Kyphosis is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.Have you recently been diagnosed with cervical kyphosis?
This spinal disorder can be a little pain in the butt, but there are some great treatment options available. We put together a guide to understanding cervical kyphosis and what some of the best cervical kyphosis treatment options are.
Check out what we found! When one views the cervix from the side, a healthy cervical spine will point inwards to a certain degree. When an abnormal curve in the spine occurs, it is known as kyphosis. This curve typically is in the shape of a crescent moon pointing towards the front of the cervix. Cervical kyphosis can also be a congenital defect. Degenerative disc disease and physical trauma can also cause cervical kyphosis, as well as many other bone and back problems. So what makes cervical kyphosis so dangerous?
This cause is the most common one for adults and is caused by osteoporosis, which weakens the vertebrae. To treat this form of cervical kyphosis, the osteoporosis will have to be treated first to prevent more fractures from happening.
Pain medication or shots will be administered, and there may need to be surgery to fix the fracture itself. To treat this type of kyphosis, doctors will almost certainly suggest surgery— this would be the one type of kyphosis that is pretty much guaranteed to require surgery.
Most sufferers of this type of kyphosis will take regular pain medication and physical therapy, as well as regular exercise, to treat the pain-related symptoms of degenerative kyphosis.
Children and babies with neuromuscular disorders like muscular dystrophy may suffer from neuromuscular kyphosis due to their preexisting conditions. How was our guide to cervical kyphosis treatment? We want to hear what you think in the comments below.Kyphosis is a deformity of spine that can result from developmental problems, trauma or degenerative disease.
Kyphosis may be present at birth, or due to conditions that may include the following:. Kyphosis is a type of spinal abnormality and should not be confused merely with poor posture. Kyphosis Surgery is generally the last treatment option which should be taken into consideration. Other non-surgical treatments, like physical therapy, should be attempted first. If symptoms and pain don't lessen after all these treatments then doctors may advise Kyphosis Surgery.
Other criteria taken into consideration for Kyphosis Surgery include the following. Depending upon these goals, doctor will make recommendations for Kyphosis Surgery.
Typical surgeries for kyphosis are:. Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure for treating compression fractures of spine.
A compression fracture generally occurs when weak back bones collapse and appear wedge-shaped. A patient with multiple fractures might look hunched, with a rounded back. To perform this surgery, doctors insert and inflates a balloon into the fractured back to create a cavity in the bone.
Cavity is then packed with cement to strengthen the weak bone. Most patients report dramatic improvement in quality of life after this procedure, and increased ability to participate in normal everyday activities. It is a surgical procedure in which two or more vertebrae are fused together, to restrict any movement that occurs in vertebral levels.
The concept of spinal fusion surgery is to connect vertebrae to each other permanently. This produces a solid bone, rather than a joint that permits movement. After Kyphosis Surgery, patients may experience some pain and discomfort, especially if they underwent a traditional Spinal Fusion Surgery for Kyphosis. Recovery of patient will be quick if he strictly follows all the guidelines provided by the surgeon.
When it comes to healthcare industry, considerable cost differences exist between India and other nations.By David K. Until recently, there has been no reliable data published on what scoliosis surgery costs in the United States. Data for those DRGs is not available.
Still, most longer spinal fusions involve many of the same procedures and instrumentation, and thus these costs should be comparable. Some portion of the rest could be out of your pocket. Here are some quick instructions to do this. Now, a few very important points. First, as mentioned earlier, this covers spinal fusions for reasons other than scoliosis. The cost of a spinal fusion varies mainly based on how many levels vertebrae were fused. So, a fusion of two vertebrae that were fractured in a car accident will be far less expensive than a fusion to correct a scoliotic curve, which might involve seven or eight or more vertebrae.
So, take these values with a grain of salt. Second, make sure to compare the right kinds of hospitals. Scoliosis surgeries tend to be performed only at the largest hospitals in a region, whereas smaller hospitals might perform shorter fusions.
Third, note that this is Medicare-related data. Claims filed with private insurance companies—which are the bulk of them—are not included here.Kyphosis - Surgical Correction with Instrumentation
However, the key point is that the charges would be roughly the same. Finally, charges for scoliosis surgery vary based on all kinds of things beyond the number of vertebrae fused. A partial list includes:. So what do we find? Well, I looked at Austin, Texas data. Does that mean that Austin is a pricey place to have scoliosis surgery in Texas?
Of course, it might be worth it if you find a great surgeon here.
Kyphosis Surgery: Types, Treatments & Cost
This data is just one of many things to consider. Parts of the rest of the country make Texas look cheap. Take a look at this list of the 10 most expensive hospitals for spinal fusions. Toggle navigation. Wolpert Until recently, there has been no reliable data published on what scoliosis surgery costs in the United States.
But a reliable source is now available.
Surgery for Kyphosis
Download the Excel file. This is a very large file and will take some time to download. Also note that this is a.Spine is divided mainly into three sections, neck or cervical spine, mid back or thoracic spine and low back or lumbar spine. These portions have a particular, normal curve to it.
Kyphosis is a curvature in front to back plane of human body with the apex of curve regulated posteriorly. It remains as part of normal spine alignment and measures up to forty-five degrees.
Kyphosis can have degrees of severity, from minor problems in the shape of spine to critical deformity, chronic pain, nerve problems, and other varying symptoms. Larger the abnormal curve, problem becomes more serious. Studies have proved that this number can also increase with age. Effective methods of treating Kyphosis have evolved over the span of time. In case of extreme complication, patient may opt for Kyphosis Correction Surgery.
In order to make appropriate diagnosis and rule out other conditions, the basic step is to take a history of the patient. If Kyphosis is suspected, doctor will look into the following specific conditions.
The doctor will check flexibility of the patient by asking him to bend in different directions. Depending on result of physical examinations and prior X-raysother tests may be ordered to examine specific aspects of spine.
Usually, MRI is done to examine spinal cord and nerves, and a CT scan to get a clear picture of vertebral bones of patient. Kyphosis has a variety of treatment options for patients. Most patients with Kyphosis can achieve excellent results like correction of abnormal curve to normal degree. There are two types of treatment for Kyphosis which are mentioned below:. Whenever possible, conservative treatments should be chosen first for treating Kyphosis. Conservative treatments commonly involve exercise, medications and certain types of braces to support spine of patient.
Use of a spinal brace may be helpful in providing some pain relief.